Tooth decay that isn’t stopped and repaired early enough can result in a tooth that dies or is on its way to dying. Symptoms can include causing dull, aching and throbbing pain that can sometimes last all day and can even keep you up at night. Extreme sensitivity to cold and hot, it can also be tender to touch or chew on, it may even cause the region and the face to swell up. A root canal treatment is the only way to keep such a tooth in the mouth when it has suffered irreversible damage to its nerve and is on its way out. Root canal treatment involves the dentist taking an x-ray to confirm the diagnosis as well as gaining vital information about the canal system of the tooth. The dentist will numb the tooth with local anaesthesia to ensure the procedure is pain free, then cleans out the decay from inside the tooth and then roots of the tooth using steel and titanium instruments designed to navigate the intricate spaces of the canal system. After cleaning and shaping the inside of the canal system the dentist places a root filling material to fill the root spaces, and prevent further infection by sealing the root canal system of the tooth. Root canal therapy has a very high success rate in removing pain, and eliminating infection. Root canal therapy may last from a single visit or possibly 3 visits depending on the complexity of the tooth system, as well as the amount of infection to overcome. In some instances, the root canal system may be too complex and may require the intervention of a root canal specialist called an endodontist. If this is the case the dentist will refer to a qualified and caring specialist to ensure the patient is out of pain.